One such feature which aids in protein trafficking is the signal sequence. As a non-limiting example, the RNA regulatory sequence may be identified by the methods described in International Publication No. Large polymeric nanoparticles nm nm in diameter which have been coated densely with a low molecular weight polyethylene glycol PEG diffused through mucus only 4 to 6-fold lower than the same particles diffusing in water Lai et al. The polymer may encapsulate the nanospecies or partially encapsulate the nanospecies. Such bridging moieties may comprise a cysteine-cysteine bridge Cys-Cys typical in polypeptides having disulfide bridges or alternatively bridging moieties may be non-protein based such as the dibromozylyl agents used herein. In one embodiment, the present invention provides methods of preparing a modified mRNA comprising at least one nucleotide e. One or more atoms of a pyrimidine nucleobase may be replaced or substituted with optionally substituted amino, optionally substituted thiol, optionally substituted alkyl e.

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These peptides may be linear, cyclic, constrained or random coil.

In some embodiments, compositions are administered to humans. In another embodiment, the length of an mRNA sequence may be sufficient to encode for a hexapeptide.

Anti-proliferative peptides may, as translated, be from 3 to 50 amino acids in length.

The purification method may be modified depending on the size of the linearization reaction which was conducted. Some signal peptides are cleaved from the protein by signal peptidase after the proteins are transported. In kxp embodiment, the modified RNA composition encodes for a death receptor ligand e.

MeCaWear | Castolin Eutectic

By way of example, the composition may comprise between 0. According to the present invention, a 5′ terminal cap may comprise a guanine analog. Provisional Patent Application No. For the purpose of clarity, one of skill in the art would appreciate that the start codon is the first codon of the protein coding region whereas the transcription start site is the site where transcription begins.


For example, the lipid nanoparticle may comprise poloxamers coating PLGA nanoparticles without forming new chemical entities which are still able to rapidly penetrate human mucus Yang et al. The polymeric material may include, but is not limited to, polyamines, polyethers, polyamides, polyesters, polycarbamates, polyureas, polycarbonates, poly styrenespolyimides, polysulfones, polyurethanes, polyacetylenes, polyethylenes, polyethyeneimines, polyisocyanates, polyacrylates, polymethacrylates, polyacrylonitriles, and polyarylates.

In some embodiments, the formulations described herein may contain eutecgics least one oncology-related mmRNA. The resultant covalent derivatives are useful in programs directed at identifying residues important for biological activity, for immunoassays, or for the preparation of anti-protein antibodies for immunoaffinity purification of the recombinant glycoprotein.

The isolated polynucleotides of the present invention may be formulated. Chemical conjugation may be used to control the stoichiometry of delivery into cells. WO or WO, each eutecitcs which is herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.

Such extremity is not limited only to the first or final site of the peptide or polypeptide but may include additional amino acids in the terminal regions.

By engineering the features typically found in abundantly expressed genes of specific target organs, one can enhance the stability and oncology-related protein production of the oncology-related polynucleotides, oncology-related primary constructs or oncology-related mmRNA of the invention.

These methods afford the investigator the ability to monitor, in real time, the level of oncology-related polynucleotides, oncology-related primary constructs or oncology-related mmRNA remaining or delivered.


Naturally occurring RNAs are synthesized from four basic ribonucleotides: In other embodiments, both R 12a and R 12b are H.

US20140113960A1 – Modified polynucleotides encoding granulysin – Google Patents

In one embodiment, the oncology-related primary constructs of the present invention include the stop codon TGA and one additional stop codon.

As a non-limiting example, T7 RNA polymerase variants may be evolved using the continuous directed evolution system set out by Esvelt et al. In some embodiments, the oncology-related polynucleotide, oncology-related primary construct, or oncology-related mmRNA is translatable.

These two complexes require eutectica Dicer ribonuclease futectics Clr4 histone H3 methyltransferase for activity.

In some embodiments of the modified nucleic acid or mmRNA e. They may be, or approximately 15 amino acids long. T1, T2, R12a, R12b, and r are as provided herein.

The phosphate linker can also be modified by the replacement of a linking oxygen with nitrogen bridged phosphoramidatessulfur bridged phosphorothioatesand carbon bridged methylene-phosphonates.

US; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in their entirety. The lipid nanoparticle engineered to penetrate mucus may include surface altering agents such as, but not limited to, mmRNA, anionic proteins e.

These nucleobases can be modified or wholly replaced to provide oncology-related polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA molecules having enhanced properties, e. The isolated polynucleotide may further be substantially purified.